From XVth century until the middle of XXth century in western countries duel became an agreed combat between gentlemen in which guns were used following some specific rules in order to protect the contendants' honor. It was necessary in this duels, the presence of second persons who could also fight the among them. In the middle of XXth century, duels start to be considered an illegal practice (first and second degree murder) in most of the countries. Most of us have got to know the existence of duels through cinema and television.
A duel usually started when one of the contendants (the challenger) wanted to to defend or protect its honnour. The main goal of duels was not to kill the opponent but to obtain a settlement, the winner had his honnour restored after outting it at risk. People who took part in a duel in a proper way, were not usually pursued, but sometimes if authorities ran after them they never were put in prison. It was said that only wealthy people and aristocrats had the possibility to defend their honnour.
If a gentleman was insulted by a lower class citizen, the duel never took place. Instead of that, the plebein was punished by the gentleman or their servants. In some countries, above all the english-speaking ones, duel took place in the street when someone was hit in its face by its opponent os simply taking the glove which someone had thrown at their feet. Since then, a proverb has become incredibly known "pick up the gauntlet" like a synonym of fighting back.
In duel with pistols, every participant should choose a second person who settled the honnour field, where was essential not to be interrupted. This second person played several roles, as a witness, as the only one who could verify guns and inform about the rules to follow; but also the person who informed auhtorities if their protegé died and deliver its body to their relatives. That's why duel normally took place at sunrise. Every single duel participant and second man should check the proper working of pistols and do their best to get a fair duel.
Antiques duel pistols fabrication is always handmade, just as duel boxes.
The manufacturer coordinates, adjusts and finishes the duel gun replica: springs, graved, microfussion of some of its parts (such as screws and recoil) and barrel machining.
Mace is the result of the evolution of blunt weapons used in war and battles given its easy handle and cheap making. These weapons become incredibly popular in Europe for High Middle Age, whereas in other places such as muslim or Indian territories its use was more longlasting.
Given that these weapons required a militar training, they became easily accepted among regular troops. Some centuries they will be conceived as a symbol of status for elite troops and nobleness.
In the beginning of Middle Age maces start to be very popular due to the deffensive weapons development. From this moment, armours (by means of the harness) will replace shields as main deffensive tool, maces will develop also a drilling aspect, thakns to its edged blades. Briefly, they will be more and more used by Knights.
Gigen that in Middle age, they were conceived as symbol of aristocracy's hierarchy and supremacy; marvellous and sumptuous maces will be made.
Maces used to be one-handed weapons. Its head' s shape was firstly spherical, a kind of inheritance from their predecessors made of stone; but later it will show polygonal and edged forms they will also imitate a shape's torch or simply a weapon's shape. Its blades will become more pointed in order to drill metal plaques.
Breastplate is a kind of cuirass used by roman and medieval warriors during their combats as a way of protect themselves. Greeks were the first ones who wore it with the idea of giving their costumes an elegant touch. As we can see in ancient masterpieces. Some breastplates were conceived for the battle and other for ceremonies.
Breastplate was a piece of armour which coverd the chest and shoulders of warriors. Most of them had also a backside with back shoulders too, in this case we coukld consider them a kind of short cuirass which allowed a better movement for soldier hips, either walking ir ridig a horse. Most of breastplates had an anatomic shape and they were usually made of metal or leather.
Some breastplates imitate muscles from the chest and the abdomen. Those were the predecessors of Loricas squamatas and Loricas Segmentatas.
Breastplates were conceived to protect warriors' chest form attacks. With the back it becomes a cuirass and joined to the rest of body protections we call it an armour. .
Muscled cuiraas are metal pieces designed with the form of an athletic body.
Spear was a kind of weapon incredibly common for Middle Age due to its easy handle and making. Lancers usually went on foot or rode horses that's why it was really cheap to supply them with arms during medieval battles.
The most advanced infantry squads took spears, but also knives, axes and hammers.
A formation whose members were only lancers might be able to stop and defeat (sometimes) noble cavalry withouth needing hich costos for being armed properly.
In Middle Age, spear (usually made of iron) became an essential weapon. It's said that it was always the second choice for a Knight.
A spear's straightness and point symbolize each other the truth and the force of a Knight.
Horses were normally afraid of attacking a disciplined group of men armed with long spears, an offensive weapon which could be also a effective protection against arrows thrown by the enemy.
Chainmail are a protection clothe made of iron, steel or aluminium forged rings placed in way that all together become a cloth. In spanish they are also known as Loricas. As a complement for these chainmails, people wore medieval hoods to protect their heads.
Roman armies introduced the Lorica Segmentata a clothing which became incredibly famous between auxiliars and legionnaires for the Imperial period. Roman chainmail was made of iron rings with a diameter inferior to 3mms. It's sait that they used the 4 in 1 pattern, requently half of rings were closed and the other half were clinched.
Closed rings had an square section, it means, metal thickness was similar to the difference between the inner and outsider diameter. Clinched rings usually had a circular section. We have evidence that rings used to be golden or made of tin.
Chainmails were ususally conceived as long shirts which offered a huge resistence to cuts and possibly they were invented by celts in the Vth Century, but also used by romans for all the Middle Age and until XVIth century. Although they offered a huge resistence to cuts they couldn't resist apointed weapons, such as arrows; but those with clinched rings. This protections has been employed even in XXst Century as a way to protect themselves from metal pieces into the military tanks during the World War I.
Chainmails most of the times had not sleeves and the rest they were really short. Shoulders were specially protected by a piece with a U form joined to the back by a line of rings, leaving by the front the sticks of the U around the neck and attached to the front by a metal piece fitted in riveted buttons. This piece used to be bordered with a strip of skin folded and sewn. For auxiliary cavalry and some officers this piece had a circular shape looking more like a layer attached in front with a pin.
To get the highest protection and commidity a padding piece of clothing is placed under the chainmail. It protects very well from drilling cuts and hits, but not as well from bruises; unlike to armours plaques which share the impact for all over their surface. That's why a inner padding multiplies the chainmail's usefulness.
Chainmails made of metal were used to cover total or partially the warrior's body.